Balai Pustaka, the government bureau for popular literature, was instituted in 1917 to promote the development of indigenous literature. Furthermore, the country has the potential for geothermal, solar, wind, biomass and ocean energy. Dirgantara Indonesia), Indonesia has provided components for Boeing and Airbus. They arrived in the archipelago around 2,000 BCE and confined the native Melanesian peoples to the far eastern regions as they spread east.  They are predominantly located in the central to eastern parts of Java and also sizable numbers in most provinces. In all legislative elections since the fall of the New Order, no political party has managed to win an overall majority of seats.  Indonesia's climate is almost entirely tropical, dominated by the tropical rainforest climate found in every large island of Indonesia. , The cultural history of the Indonesian archipelago spans more than two millennia. 2004.  Former President B. J. Habibie played a vital role in this achievement. ( 2 ) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, ( 3 ) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, ( 4 ) United Nations Statistical Division. , Since independence, the country has struggled to maintain unity against local insurgencies and separatist movements.  As a result of centuries-long contact with other languages, it is rich in local and foreign influences, including from Javanese, Sundanese, Minangkabau, Hindi, Sanskrit, Chinese, Arabic, Dutch, Portuguese and English. ASUS adalah perusahaan terdepan yang menyediakan inovasi dan komitmen dalam menghadirkan produk berkualitas seperti notebook, netbook, motherboard, graphics card, display, desktop PC, server, wireless solution, mobile phone dan perangkat networking.  Dutch and British traders followed. NATURE REPUBLIC is a natural brand that finds and shares the energy of life from the pristine nature around the world.  Buddhism arrived around the 6th century, and its history in Indonesia is closely related to that of Hinduism, as some empires based on Buddhism had its roots around the same period.  Parents can choose between state-run, non-sectarian schools or private or semi-private religious (usually Islamic) schools, supervised by the ministries of Education and Religion, respectively.  The military has possessed a strong political influence since its founding, which peaked during the New Order. x.  Other forms of local drama include the Javanese Ludruk and Ketoprak, the Sundanese Sandiwara, Betawi Lenong, and various Balinese dance drama.  Of these, Javanese is the most widely spoken. The Ministry of Tourism, however, chose tumpeng as the official national dish in 2014, describing it as binding the diversity of various culinary traditions. Forests on Sumatra and Kalimantan are examples of popular destinations, such as the Orangutan wildlife reserve.  Its spread faced difficulty due to the VOC policy of banning the religion and the Dutch hostility due to the Eighty Years' War against Catholic Spain's rule. , Indonesia is a republic with a presidential system. Ngurah Rai International Airport and Juanda International Airport are the country's second-and third-busiest airport respectively. , Indonesian arts include both age-old art forms developed through centuries and a recently developed contemporary art. , Nearly 80% of Indonesia's population lives in the western parts of the archipelago, but they are growing at a slower pace than the rest of the country.  Trade, missionary works such as by the Wali Sanga and Chinese explorer Zheng He, and military campaigns by several sultanates helped accelerate the spread of the religion.  Other parts of the archipelago gradually adopted Islam, and it was the dominant religion in Java and Sumatra by the end of the 16th century. Protestantism is mostly a result of Calvinist and Lutheran missionary efforts during the Dutch colonial era. Device model Xiaomi Mi 11 5G Global Dual SIM TD-LTE 256GB M2011K2G / MI11T (Xiaomi Venus) updated about 3 hours ago Device model Oppo A31 2020 Dual SIM TD-LTE V2 TH 128GB CPH2015 (BBK 2015) updated about 3 hours ago Device model Oppo A31 2020 Dual SIM TD-LTE V1 IN SG 128GB CPH2015 (BBK 2015) updated about 3 hours ago , Hindu influences reached the archipelago as early as the first century CE. , Indonesia maintains 132 diplomatic missions abroad, including 95 embassies. , Indonesia has nine UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the Komodo National Park and the Sawahlunto Coal Mine; and a further 19 in a tentative list that includes Bunaken National Park and Raja Ampat Islands. ", "Palm Oil and Land Acquisition in Indonesia: Implications for Local Communities and Indigenous People", "Evaluating Indonesia's Progress on its Climate Commitments", 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22710912A94267053.en, "Extinction crisis escalates: Red List shows apes, corals, vultures, dolphins all in danger", 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T19495A8925965.en, Impact of Climate Change on ASEAN International Affairs: Risk and Opportunity Multiplier, "Climate Change in Indonesia: Implications for Humans and Nature", "Report: Flooded Future: Global vulnerability to sea level rise worse than previously understood", "Jakarta, the fastest-sinking city in the world", "Indonesia: Climate Risk and Adaptation Country Profile", "Indonesia: General elections test the amended Constitution and the new Constitutional Court", "The 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia", "Governor of Jakarta Receives His Party's Nod for President", "New election bill, new hope for democracy", "Explaining the 2019 simultaneous elections", "House Agrees on Creation of Indonesia's 34th Province: 'North Kalimantan, "Indonesia Law No.  Of the 400 volcanoes, around 130 are active. The world's leading telcotech company providing broadband and mobile services to homes and businesses across the Asia-Pacific. Most Hindus are Balinese, and most Buddhists are Chinese Indonesians.  Private radio stations carry news bulletins while foreign broadcasters supply programmes.  This situation makes Indonesia the world's largest forest-based emitter of greenhouse gases.  Problems include the destruction of peatlands, large-scale illegal deforestation (causing extensive haze across parts of Southeast Asia), over-exploitation of marine resources, air pollution, garbage management, and reliable water and wastewater services.  While it can generate wealth for local communities, it may degrade ecosystems and cause social problems. , Tectonically, Indonesia is highly unstable, making it a site of numerous volcanoes and frequent earthquakes. Furthermore, Indonesia has made enormous gains in poverty reduction, cutting the poverty rate by …  It brought out popular discontent with the New Order's corruption and suppression of political opposition and ultimately ended Suharto's presidency.  In written poetry and prose, several traditional forms dominate, mainly syair, pantun, gurindam, hikayat and babad.  Papua and West Papua are the only provinces where the indigenous people have privileges in their local government. South Maluku, officially the Republic of South Maluku, is an unrecognized secessionist republic in the southern Maluku Islands archipelago in Oceania and Maritime Southeast Asia that claims the islands of Ambon, Buru, and Seram as part of its territory, all of which are currently illegally occupied by the Indonesian province of Maluku.  Literature and poetry flourished during the decades leading up to and after independence. The army has about 400,000 active-duty personnel. , Since 1999, Indonesia has had a multi-party system. , After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, and native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. It was promoted by nationalists in the 1920s and achieved official status under the name Bahasa Indonesia in 1945. , As with the arts, Indonesian architecture has absorbed foreign influences that have brought cultural changes and profound effect on building styles and techniques.  The Armed Forces were formed during the Indonesian National Revolution when it undertook guerrilla warfare along with informal militia.  The President of Indonesia is the head of state and head of government, commander-in-chief of the Indonesian National Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI), and the director of domestic governance, policy-making, and foreign affairs. Garuda Indonesia, the country's flag carrier since 1949, is one of the world's leading airlines and a member of the global airline alliance SkyTeam.  Many regional cuisines exist, often based upon indigenous culture and foreign influences such as Chinese, European, Middle Eastern, and Indian precedents. On the international stage, Indonesia was the first Asian team to participate at the FIFA World Cup in 1938 as the Dutch East Indies. The former can boast a unique combination of a tropical climate, a vast archipelago, and a long stretch of beaches, and the latter complement those with a rich cultural heritage reflecting Indonesia's dynamic history and ethnic diversity.  Most are between the ages of 15 and 19 and depend primarily on mobile phones for access, outnumbering both laptops and computers.  Some of the famous Indonesian boxers include Ellyas Pical, three times IBF Super flyweight champion; Nico Thomas, Muhammad Rachman, and Chris John. These commodities make up a large portion of the country's exports, with palm oil and coal briquettes as the leading export commodities. The debt ratio to GDP is 29.2%. The temples of Borobudur and Prambanan are among the most famous examples of the practice. , While the constitution stipulates religious freedom, the government officially recognises only six religions: Islam, Protestantism, Roman Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism; with indigenous religions only partly acknowledged. Two days after the surrender of Japan in August 1945, Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, influential nationalist leaders, proclaimed Indonesian independence and were appointed president and vice-president respectively. ", "Share of people living in urban areas, 2017", "Demographia World Urban Areas, 15th Annual Edition", "Tapping the Indonesian Diaspora Potential", "The Indonesian Language: Its History and Role in Modern Society", "Minangkabau, Background of the main pioneers of modern standard Malay in Indonesia", "Language interference: Indonesian and English", "The Demographic History of the Dutch in the East Indies", "The Ambiguities of Religious Freedom in Indonesia", "2016 Indonesia International Religious Freedom Report", "2003 International Religious Freedom Report", Handbook of Oriental Studies.  Jakarta is the country's primate city and the second-most populous urban area in the world with over 34 million residents. It is divided into several community groups (rukun warga, RW), which are further divided into neighbourhood groups (rukun tetangga, RT). (2012), The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought, Princeton University Press. It marked the first time in UN history that a member state had attempted a withdrawal. Many scholars consider the 1950s and 1960s to be the Golden Age of Indonesian Literature. Since 2014 we have been providing quality mods and growing every day since then, we are here to stay. Per capita GDP in PPP is US$14,020, while nominal per capita GDP is US$4,120.  It lies on the Pacific Ring of Fire where the Indo-Australian Plate and the Pacific Plate are pushed under the Eurasian plate where they melt at about 100 kilometres (62 miles) deep.  Other notable parties include the Party of the Functional Groups (Golkar), the Great Indonesia Movement Party (Gerindra), the Democratic Party, and the Prosperous Justice Party (PKS). Department of Foreign Affairs.  Other engagements of the army include the campaign against the Netherlands New Guinea to incorporate the territory into Indonesia, the Konfrontasi to oppose the creation of Malaysia, the mass killings of PKI, and the invasion of East Timor, which remains Indonesia's most massive military operation. Their painting tradition started as classical Kamasan or Wayang style visual narrative, derived from visual art discovered on candi bas reliefs in eastern Java. However, in the 2010s (especially after 2016), a wave of anti-LGBT rhetoric has surged rapidly, putting LGBT Indonesians into a frequent subject of intimidation, discrimination, and even violence.  Beginning with 2015 local elections, elections for governors and mayors have occurred on the same date.  However, it has also resulted in fertile soils, a factor in historically sustaining high population densities of Java and Bali..  Although they are the most common branch, there is a multitude of other denominations elsewhere in the country. "Kropak 406; Carita Parahyangan dan Fragmen Carita Parahyangan", Makalah disampaikan dalam Kegiatan Bedah Naskah Kuna yang diselenggarakan oleh Balai Pengelolaan Museum Negeri Sri Baduga.  Indonesia has also joined the South Korean programme to manufacture the fifth-generation jet fighter KAI KF-X. Notable theatre, dance, and drama troupe such as Teater Koma are famous as it often portrays social and political satire of Indonesian society.. The army, led by Major General Suharto, countered by instigating a violent anti-communist purge that killed between 500,000 and one million people. , The road transport system is predominant, with a total length of 542,310 kilometres (336,980 miles) as of 2018[update]. Indonesian music and dance.  The style and characteristics of modern Indonesian literature vary according to the dynamics of the country's political and social landscape, most notably the war of independence in the second half of the 1940s and the anti-communist mass killings in the mid-1960s. In 2016, Warkop DKI Reborn: Jangkrik Boss Part 1 smashed box office records, becoming the most-watched Indonesian film with 6.8 million tickets sold.  The region of islands between his line and New Guinea is now termed Wallacea.  The country adheres to what it calls a "free and active" foreign policy, seeking a role in regional affairs in proportion to its size and location but avoiding involvement in conflicts among other countries. Islam was introduced by Sunni traders of the Shafi'i fiqh, as well as Sufi traders from the Indian subcontinent and southern Arabian peninsula as early as the 8th century CE. ", "Indonesia Launches $212M International Development Aid Fund", "Indonesia: Military expenditure (% of GDP)", "TNI's Gold Mine: Corruption and Military-Owned Businesses in Indonesia", "Indonesian Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia-TNI)", "The Political Influence of the Military Before and After Democratic Transition: Experiences from Indonesia – An Assessment on Myanmar", "Papua: Answer to Frequently Asked Questions", "Policy Review: Is the Indonesian Government Debt still in a 'Safe Zone'?  The DPR passes legislation and monitors the executive branch. Album pertama mereka ialah Punya Arti dirilis pada awal tahun 2007 dengan hits single “Hanya Ingin Kau Tahu”. Greater Jakarta Area, Indonesia Advisory Board Member Asian Television Awards Okt 2016 - Saat ini 4 tahun 4 bulan. Indonesian dances derive its influences from the archipelago's prehistoric and tribal, Hindu-Buddhist, and Islamic periods. People wear national and regional costumes during traditional weddings, formal ceremonies, music performances, government and official occasions, and they vary from traditional to modern attire.  The PKI was blamed for the coup and effectively destroyed. Section 3 Southeast Asia, Religions, "Influence of Hinduism and Buddhism on Indonesian culture", "How religious commitment varies by country among people of all ages", "Awakening Indonesia's Golden Generation: Extending Compulsory Education from 9 to 12 Years", "Educative Tradition and Islamic Schools in Indonesia", "Is Indonesia Ready for International Branch Campuses? Indonesia's first appearance at the AFC Asian Cup was in 1996 and successfully qualified for the next three tournaments, although they never make the knockout phase. , Indonesia has several levels of subdivisions. From 1973 to 1992, the festival was held annually and then discontinued until its revival in 2004. Although relations among the diverse population are mostly harmonious, acute sectarian discontent and violence remain a problem in some areas. Taufiq Tanasaldy, Regime Change and Ethnic Politics in Indonesia, Brill Academic. Repvblik merupakan sebuah grup Band asal Indonesia. , The music of Indonesia predates historical records. , Government expenditure on healthcare is about 3.3% of GDP in 2016. Since then, the president is elected for a five-year term, as are the party-aligned members of the DPR and the non-partisan DPD. Winds are moderate and generally predictable, with monsoons usually blowing in from the south and east in June through October, and from the northwest in November through March. The growth ended with the 1997 Asian financial crisis that had a severe impact on the economy, including a 13.1% real GDP contraction in 1998 and inflation reaching 78%. Independent filmmaking was a rebirth of the film industry since 1998, where films started addressing previously banned topics, such as religion, race, and love.  The services are the economy's largest sector and account for 43.4% of GDP (2018), followed by industry (39.7%) and agriculture (12.8%). The Republic Of Indonesia Jakarta Customer Industrial Flexible Customize Fashion Comperature Control Barrel Band Silicone Pad Rubber Heater 130 PCS 230v 1500w 400.00mmx1000.00mm The Production Line Has Been Completed, By DHL Shipments , Thanks For The Support From Republic Of Indonesia Jakarta Customers,Partial Customer Order Delivery Display,Partial customer order delivery display In areas with a history of tribal warfare, mock fighting contests are held, such as caci in Flores and pasola in Sumba. , Indonesia lies along the equator, and its climate tends to be relatively even year-round.  Historically, they constituted only a tiny fraction of the native population and remain so today. In addition to refined and crude petroleum as the main imports, telephones, vehicle parts and wheat cover the majority of additional imports. The national costume has its origins in the indigenous culture of the country and traditional textile traditions.  However, the forests of the smaller, and more densely populated Java, have largely been removed for human habitation and agriculture. Its main functions are supporting and amending the constitution, inaugurating and impeaching the president, and formalising broad outlines of state policy. Indonesia has a well-preserved natural ecosystem with rain forests that stretch over about 57% of Indonesia's land (225 million acres). The oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb) prevails in highland areas adjacent to rainforest climates, with reasonably uniform precipitation year-round. From 2007 to 2019, annual growth has accelerated to between 4% and 6% as a result of improvement in the banking sector and domestic consumption, helping Indonesia weather the 2008–2009 Great Recession, and regain in 2011 the investment grade rating it had lost in 1997. With its state-owned company, the Indonesian Aerospace (PT. OneRepublic is an American pop rock band formed in Colorado Springs, Colorado, in 2002. , Indonesian dances have a diverse history, with more than 3,000 original dances.  As the only G20 member state in Southeast Asia, the country has the largest economy in the region and is classified as a newly industrialised country. , The oldest evidence of writing in the Indonesian archipelago is a series of Sanskrit inscriptions dated to the 5th century. , Indonesia was a significant battleground during the Cold War. Scholars believe that they had their beginning in rituals and religious worship. , The Javanese are the largest ethnic group, constituting 40.2% of the population, and are politically dominant. At 4,884 metres (16,024 ft), Puncak Jaya is Indonesia's highest peak, and Lake Toba in Sumatra is the largest lake, with an area of 1,145 km2 (442 sq mi).  It also threatens the survival of indigenous and endemic species. Media freedom increased considerably after the fall of the New Order, during which the Ministry of Information monitored and controlled domestic media and restricted foreign media. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population. However, it was not until 1949 that the Dutch recognised Indonesia's sovereignty following an armed and diplomatic conflict between the two.  The 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora and the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa were among the largest in recorded history. More cooling climate types do exist in mountainous regions that are 1,300 to 1,500 metres (4,300 to 4,900 feet) above sea level.  A gradual process of industrialisation and urbanisation began in the late 1960s and accelerated in the 1980s as falling oil prices saw the government focus on diversifying away from oil exports and towards manufactured exports.  About 8 million Indonesians live overseas; most settled in Malaysia, the Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Hong Kong, Singapore, the United States, and Australia. Various indigenous tribes incorporate chants and songs accompanied by musical instruments in their rituals.  In the 1980s, Indonesian engineer Tjokorda Raka Sukawati invented a road construction technique named Sosrobahu that allows the construction of long stretches of flyovers above existing main roads with minimum traffic disruption. , Sports are generally male-oriented, and spectators are often associated with illegal gambling. Today, there is some degree of fluency by either educated members of the oldest generation or legal professionals, as specific law codes are still only available in Dutch. 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The country had 171 million Internet users in 2018, with a penetration rate that keeps increasing annually. , Expansion of the palm oil industry requiring significant changes to the natural ecosystems is the one primary factor behind much of Indonesia's deforestation.  The latter part of the Sukarno era saw the use of cinema for nationalistic, anti-Western purposes, and foreign films were subsequently banned, while the New Order utilised a censorship code that aimed to maintain social order. Dutch forces were engaged continuously in quelling rebellions both on and off Java. The experts in Super-Fast broadband, our plans are unlimited, so you never have to worry about running out of data. Indonesia's largest airport, Soekarno–Hatta International Airport is among the busiest in the Southern Hemisphere, serving 54 million passengers in 2019. Here's What You Should Know About Usmar Ismail", "The Last 10 Years of Indonesia's Film Industry", "World Notices Indonesian Film Resurgence", "The Internet in Indonesia: Development and Impact of Radical Websites", "Indonesia has 171 million internet users: Study", "Indonesian internet users turn to smartphones to go online", "Preserving intangible cultural heritage in Indonesia", "An Introduction to the Literature of Indonesia, 2015 Frankfurt Book Fair's Guest of Honor", "Celebratory rice cone dish to represent the archipelago", "7 Boxing World Champions from Indonesia", "Haryanto becomes Indonesia's first F1 driver", Coordinating Minister for Economic Affairs, Coordinating Minister for Human Development and Cultural Affairs, Coordinating Minister for Maritime Affairs, Coordinating Minister for Political, Legal, and Security Affairs, State Apparatus Utilization and Bureaucratic Reform, Cooperation and Small & Medium Enterprises, Research, Technology and Higher Education, Villages, Underdeveloped Regions and Transmigration, Financial Transaction Reports and Analysis Center, National Team for Transportation Safety and Security, ASEAN–Republic of Korea Commemorative Summit, Comprehensive Economic Partnership for East Asia, Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, ASEAN–Australia Development Cooperation Program, Outstanding Scientist and Technologist Award, African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States, Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Indonesia&oldid=1001885070, Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, States and territories established in 1945, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from October 2020, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from December 2016, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Indonesian-language text, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2018, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Articles with Indonesian-language sources (id), Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Indonesian Workers Placement and Protection, This page was last edited on 21 January 2021, at 21:00. Mereka pun saling bersinergi dengan sebuah jiwa nasionalisme, anak-anak muda yang masih bertatus mahasiswa ini mengusung nama REPVBLIK. We are Saviors of Sound, ready to rid the world of hollow sounding headphones and earbuds. , The country's official language is Indonesian, a variant of Malay based on its prestige dialect, which for centuries had been the lingua franca of the archipelago.  Papua was part of the Australian landmass and is home to a unique fauna and flora closely related to that of Australia, including over 600 bird species.  Examples include Toraja's Tongkonan, Minangkabau's Rumah Gadang and Rangkiang, Javanese style Pendopo pavilion with Joglo style roof, Dayak's longhouses, various Malay houses, Balinese houses and temples, and also different forms of rice barns (lumbung).  They worshipped and revered ancestral spirit, and believed that supernatural spirits (hyang) might inhabit certain places such as large trees, stones, forests, mountains, or sacred sites. 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It undertook guerrilla warfare along with informal militia degrade ecosystems and cause social problems Impoverished communities likely.
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