, Cold is a primary regulator of BAT processes and induces WAT browning.  Marked component differences have been observed in comparing EAT with subcutaneous fat, suggesting a depot specific impact of stored fatty acids on adipocyte function and metabolism. Far from being hormonally inert, adipose tissue has, in recent years, been recognized as a major endocrine organ, as it produces hormones such as leptin, estrogen, resistin, and cytokine (especially TNFα). Abdominal fat has a different metabolic profile—being more prone to induce insulin resistance. DNA microarray is a bioinformatics tool used to quantify expression levels of various genes simultaneously, and has been used extensively in the study of adipose tissue. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov. CONTINUE SCROLLING OR CLICK HERE FOR RELATED SLIDESHOW ", "Belly fat in women: Taking – and keeping – it off", "Gluteofemoral body fat as a determinant of metabolic health", "Caloric restriction leads to high marrow adiposity and low bone mass in growing mice", "Expansion of Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue During Caloric Restriction Is Associated With Increased Circulating Glucocorticoids and Not With Hypoleptinemia", "Increased bone marrow fat in anorexia nervosa", "Exercise Decreases Marrow Adipose Tissue Through ß-Oxidation in Obese Running Mice", "Exercise Regulation of Marrow Fat in the Setting of PPARγ Agonist Treatment in Female C57BL/6 Mice", "Bone marrow fat accumulation accelerated by high fat diet is suppressed by exercise", "Ectopic fat and insulin resistance: pathophysiology and effect of diet and lifestyle interventions", "The Chemical Composition of Adipose Tissue of Man and Mice", "The role of leptin in the control of insulin-glucose axis", "Fat-Bellied Monkeys Suggest Why Stress Sucks", "Human and mouse adipose-derived cells support feeder-independent induction of pluripotent stem cells", "Functional differences in visceral and subcutaneous fat pads originate from differences in the adipose stem cell", "Comparison of human adipose-derived stem cells isolated from subcutaneous, omental, and intrathoracic adipose tissue depots for regenerative applications", "Oxygenation of adipose tissue: A human perspective", "Tissue Physiology and Pathology of Aromatase", "Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins and energy metabolism", "Mechanism of fatty-acid-dependent UCP1 uncoupling in brown fat mitochondria", "The on-off switches of the mitochondrial uncoupling proteins", "Identification and importance of brown adipose tissue in adult humans", "Brown and beige fat: development, function and therapeutic potential", "Brown fat as a therapy for obesity and diabetes", "Mitochondrial turnover: a phenotype distinguishing brown adipocytes from interscapular brown adipose tissue and white adipose tissue", "Turning WAT into BAT: a review on regulators controlling the browning of white adipocytes", "Prdm16 is required for the maintenance of brown adipocyte identity and function in adult mice", "Ebf2 is a selective marker of brown and beige adipogenic precursor cells", "SnapShot: Brown and Beige Adipose Thermogenesis", "EBF2 transcriptionally regulates brown adipogenesis via the histone reader DPF3 and the BAF chromatin remodeling complex", "A PGC1-α-dependent myokine that drives brown-fat-like development of white fat and thermogenesis", "Roles of FGFs as Adipokines in Adipose Tissue Development, Remodeling, and Metabolism", "FGF21 is an endocrine signal of protein restriction", "Group 2 innate lymphoid cells promote beiging of white adipose tissue and limit obesity", "Brown and white adipose tissues: intrinsic differences in gene expression and response to cold exposure in mice", "Transcriptional and epigenetic control of brown and beige adipose cell fate and function", "EBF2 promotes the recruitment of beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue", "Recent advances in understanding leptin signaling and leptin resistance", "Obese (ob) gene defects are rare in human obesity", "Congenital leptin deficiency due to homozygosity for the Delta133G mutation: report of another case and evaluation of response to four years of leptin therapy", "A new missense mutation in the leptin gene causes mild obesity and hypogonadism without affecting T cell responsiveness", "Specific force deficit in skeletal muscles of old rats is partially explained by the existence of denervated muscle fibers", "CCR2 deficiency leads to increased eosinophils, alternative macrophage activation, and type 2 cytokine expression in adipose tissue", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Adipose_tissue&oldid=997728498, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from May 2012, Pages with login required references or sources, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2012, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from July 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 January 2021, at 23:22. BAT is robustly activated upon cold exposure by the release of catecholamines from sympathetic nerves that results in UCP1 activation. also used microarray analysis to demonstrate that insulin deficiency inhibits the differentiation of beige adipocytes but does not disturb their capacity for browning. Insulin secretion is stimulated by high blood sugar, which results from consuming carbohydrates.. Adipose tissue is found in specific locations, which are referred to as adipose depots.  Thus, a person with more adipose tissue will float more easily than a person of the same weight with more muscular tissue, since muscular tissue has a density of 1.06 g/ml.. Incorporating RNA-Seq into browning studies is of great value, as it offers better specificity, sensitivity, and a more comprehensive overview of gene expression than other methods. 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