The International Food Policy Research Institute expressed concerns that the increased connections between markets and the complexity of food and economic systems could cause disruptions to food systems during the COVID-19 pandemic, specifically affecting the poor. Urban areas mainly consume bushmeat because they cannot afford other types of meat.  One out of every seven people on the planet go to sleep hungry. 1977, 67: 384-396. 10.1007/BF00047517. 10.1007/BF00123117. On the other hand, in the Indonesian context women take part during planting and harvesting  and, in Sri Lanka, they provide labor during peak times .  There is sentiment that making this trend disappear should be a top priority for governments and international institutions. Vasey DE: Household gardens and their niche in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. 1986, 21: 279-310. ", Diseases affecting livestock or crops can have devastating effects on food availability especially if there are no contingency plans in place. In some places, home gardeners are also engaged in mushroom cultivation and beekeeping  and even small fresh water fish ponds are incorporated into the garden space adding to the share of proteins and other nutrients available for the family . In the real world, there is substantial overlap and dependence between the various beneficial elements resulting in a bundle of advantages making home gardening initiatives even more attractive. , On April 29, 2008, a UNICEF UK report found that the world's poorest and most vulnerable children are being hit the hardest by climate change. For centuries, home gardens have been an integral component of family farming and local food systems.  A survey found that 2.5% of China's arable land is too contaminated to grow food without harm. 10.1016/0308-521X(87)90064-3. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2012. The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2020 has been prepared by the FAO Agricultural Development Economics Division in collaboration with the Statistics Division of the Economic and Social Development Department and a team of technical experts from FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP and WHO. 1977, 73-82. Many of the compositions on home gardens share research and experiences of developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. 2009, 37 (6): 691-703. 2009, Discussion Paper 00928, Washington DC, USA: International Food Policy Research Institute, Wanasundera L: Rural Women in Sri Lanka’s Post-Conflict Rural Economy. Home gardens are mainly intended to grow and produce food items for family consumption, but they can be diversified to produce outputs that have multiple uses including indigenous medicine and home remedies for certain illnesses, kindling and alternative fuel source, manure, building material, and animal feed. , On April 30, 2008, Thailand, one of the world's biggest rice exporters, announced the creation of the Organisation of Rice Exporting Countries with the potential to develop into a price-fixing cartel for rice. Home gardens in Bukoba district of Tanzania contained plant species grown entirely for medicinal purposes . , The Rome Declaration called for the members of the United Nations to work to halve the number of chronically undernourished people on the Earth by the year 2015. , Taxpayers heavily subsidize corn and soy, which are primary ingredients in processed foods and fatty foods not encouraged by the government, and are also used to fatten livestock. In Tajikistan, where many of the men were killed during the civil war or have migrated to Russia and other countries for employment, women, elders and children have been providing invaluable family labor and resources to local agricultural economy. , The area sown to genetically engineered crops in developing countries is rapidly catching up with the area sown in industrial nations.  The west coast of North America, which gets much of its water from glaciers in mountain ranges such as the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada, also would be affected. " The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) supported the same consensus a year later in addition to recommending the extension of biotechnology to the developing world. Agrofor Syst. Chronic food insecurity translates into a high degree of vulnerability to famine and hunger; ensuring food security presupposes elimination of that vulnerability. In many cases the sale of produce from home gardens improves the financial status of the family providing additional income, while contributing social and cultural amelioration . Learning that the average family of four throws away $1,500 worth of food per year while neighbors may be going hungry can provide the motivation to waste less and give more: waste less money at the grocery store and give more to the food pantry. Iron insufficiency elevates the risk of mortality during pregnancy by 20% . 2004, 63: 53-62. The study showed that the project is far behind schedule and is not living up to its expectations. Other studies have shown that, in situations where women are leading home gardens, there has been improvement to household nutrition, especially child nutrition [72, 107]. While these benefits are broadly distinguished here for better illustration, these benefits are not mutually exclusive. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Through Mid-day meal, Food-security Act, Integrated-Child Development scheme (ICDS) and half dozen other schemes, Government ensures nutritious food to children. Jose D, Shanmugaratnam N: Traditional homegardens of Kerala: a sustainable human ecosystem. In India, manual scavenging is prohibited as per the Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act 1993. Drescher AW, Hagmann J, Chuma E: Homegardens – a neglected potential for food security and sustainable land management in the communal lands of Zimbabwe. The energy for the Green Revolution was provided by fossil fuels in the form of fertilizers (natural gas), pesticides (oil), and hydrocarbon fueled irrigation. 2008, Dhaka, Bangladesh: Paper presented at the National workshop on Multiple cropping. 10.1007/BF00705705. "The World's wheat supply.". 1995, London, UK: Macmillan. The attraction of honey bees provides added benefits including improved pollination and increased fruit dispersal . A generous portion of the plants found in home gardens have some medicinal value and they can be used to treat many common health problems in a cost-effective manner. In the Peruvian capital of Lima, home gardening has led to nutritional benefits to families living in slum areas by increasing the availability of carbohydrates as well as nutrient-rich vegetables and fruits that are not economically accessible for poor slum dwellers . Tropical Homegardens: A Time-tested Example of Sustainable Agroforestry. 10.1080/03670244.1989.9991092. , World Food Day was established on October 16, in honor of the date that the FAO was founded in 1945. 1995, 19 (2): 209-224. Introduction, Chapter 1, Pp. , Food insecurity in children can lead to developmental impairments and long term consequences such as weakened physical, intellectual and emotional development. 1997, 20: 73-90.  On the other hand, gender equality is described as instrumental to ending malnutrition and hunger. , Since 1961, human diets across the world have become more diverse in the consumption of major commodity staple crops, with a corollary decline in consumption of local or regionally important crops, and thus have become more homogeneous globally. 1994, 16 (3): 220-223. Collectively, the ecological potential, economic status, and social elements influence the presence of food and non-food crops and animals in the garden [28, 53]. 2009, 16 (1): 1-8. It is the situation where an individual experiences a loss without receiving payment or vice versa. They conclude that the most important ecosystems services provided by home gardens differ from large-scale and commercial agriculture. 10.1007/BF01538222. To help rural women escape poverty, in 2012 UN Women joined with the World Food Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization, the International Fund for Agriculture Development to launch a joint programme to empower poor rural women through economic integration and food security initiatives. This will eventually lead to water scarcity and cutbacks in grain harvest. Several measurements have been developed to capture the access component of food security, with some notable examples developed by the USAID-funded Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance (FANTA) project, collaborating with Cornell and Tufts University and Africare and World Vision. food security analysis, for example, take market concerns into account, with a view to determining what would be the most appropriate response (food and/or non-food) to meet immediate needs, while at the same time contributing to rebuilding food security and increasing the resilience of poor households to shocks. gThe two major national home gardening programs in Sri Lanka are “Api Wavamu, Rata Nagamu” (Let us cultivate to uplift the nation) and “Divinaguma” (Livelihood upliftment).  Bushmeat trade was used to measure the trend of food security. 10.1007/BF02864783. 2010, 57: 487-500. 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According the United Nations’ Committee on World Food Security, food security is defined as the means that all people, at all times, have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets their food preferences and dietary needs for an active and healthy life. 12. ’’Cryoconservation of Animal Genetic Resources.’ ‘Rep. bThe Food and Agriculture Organization  reported an average consumption per person of 3,130 kcal per day by the year 2050 based on their baseline projections. Food Security Information for Action, Practical Guides. 2001, Witzenhausen, Germany: Paper presented at Proceedings of the Second International Home Gardens Workshop, Pulami RP, Poudel D: Home Garden’s Contribution to Livelihoods of Nepalese Farmers. Adverse health effects due to inadequate intake of basic macronutrients are further compounded by deficiencies in micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals. A pioneering research study on home gardens conducted by Ochse and Terra in the early 1930s  states that home gardens led to 18% of the caloric and 14% of the protein consumption by households in Kutowinangun, Indonesia. Buchmann’s 2009 assessment  of 25 home gardens in Central Cuba noted 182 plant species. Insurance can be designed to protect many types of individuals and assets against single or multiple perils and buffer insured parties against sudden and dramatic income or asset loss. Sustainable use of Biological Diversity in Socio-ecological Production Landscapes. Jacob VJ, Alles WS: The Kandyan gardens of Sri Lanka. volume 2, Article number: 8 (2013) The choice of feasible approaches hinges on the existing social, political, and economic conditions and resources available to design and implement the intervention. Other reports from around the world also identify a significant concentration of plants used as vegetables, fruits, herbs, medicines, yams, and spices [78, 114].
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